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Fourth room
Masks of the Primitive

In Paul Cézanne’s portraits of his wife Hortense and the country people of his native Aix the human being is stripped of all expressive eloquence and becomes an archetype. Together with Gauguin’s Synthesism, Henri Rousseau’s Primitivism and tribal art these had a key influence on the development of the avant-garde portrait. During the early years of the 20th century, Picasso, Matisse, Modigliani and Derain’s iconoclastic decision to deliberately replace the sitter’s individual facial features with an abstract mask definitively opened the way towards the consolidation of the modern portrait.
Madame Cézanne in a Yellow Chair

Paul Cézanne
Madame Cézanne in a Yellow Chair, 1888-1890
Oil on canvas, 31 5/8 x 25 5/8 in. (80.2 x 64.2 cm)
Fondation Beyeler, Riehen/Basel, Switzerland
Portrait of a Young Woman: Vaďté (Jeanne) Goupil

Paul Gauguin
Portrait of a Young Woman: Vaďté (Jeanne) Goupil, 1896
Oil on canvas, 29 1/2 x 25 5/8 in. (75 x 65 cm)
Ordrupgaard, Copenhague
Portrait of Monsieur X (Pierre Loti)

Henri Rousseau
Portrait of Monsieur X (Pierre Loti), 1906
Oil on canvas, 24 x 19 5/8 in. (61 x 50 cm)
Kunsthaus Zürich

Amedeo Modigliani
Antonia, c. 1915
Oil on canvas, 32 1/4 x 18 1/8 in. (82 x 46 cm)
Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris
Jean Walter and Paul Guillaume Collection